Windows 10 on ARM is precisely what the name states; Windows 10 on ARM. It looks like Windows 10, acts like Windows 10, and can run Windows 10 apps and programs. It has a few notable restrictions, such as its inability to run x64 apps, but in general, it's simply a version of Windows 10 built to run on ARM processors.
Devices running Windows 10 on ARM feature long battery life, excellent standby battery, and have the ability to stay connected to the web through cellular data. Depending on your workflow, you might be able to just turn on a Windows 10 on ARM device and run it exactly like your other PCs, but there are a few things you can do to get the best performance and battery life out of the device.